The RUMBLE consortium gathers the best skilled organizations in supersonic aviation in Europe and Russia, combining scientific excellence, world-class research infrastructures and industrial leadership bearing the heritage from Concorde and Tu-144, with strong participation in the regulatory bodies.

Airbus SAS

Organization Profile

“Société par Actions Simplifiée” organized and existing under the French law,  registered on the French RCS (Registre du Commerce et des Sociétés) under the number 383 474 814 RCS Toulouse, having its registered office at 2 rond-point Emile Dewoitine, 31700 Blagnac, France.

Airbus S.A.S., along with its subsidiaries, manufactures aircrafts. It offers commercial aircraft, double-deck aircraft, passenger aircraft, corporate jets, fighter and military aircraft. The company has strategic agreements with Aerolineas Argentinas and Fokker Technologies. Airbus S.A.S. was formerly known as Airbus Industrie GIE. The company was founded in 1970 and is based in Toulouse, France. It has subsidiaries in the United States, China, Japan, India, and the Middle East; spare parts centers in Hamburg, Frankfurt, Washington, Beijing, and Singapore; training centers in Toulouse, Miami, Hamburg, and Beijing; and field service offices around the world.

Role in the Project

Airbus SAS ensures the lead and coordination of the project (represented by WP8 Management). Furthermore, it coordinates the activity to produce the recommendations on a low sonic boom standard, and the strategic coordination of the project, including its interfaces to ICAO (WP1). This is of course performed in line with the Airbus representatives in ICAO CAEP.

Finally, AGI-F also contributes to a lower extend to the activities of WP 4, 5 and 6.

Airbus Group Limited

Organization Profile

Airbus Group Limited is a private limited company duly organized and existing under the law of England and Wales, registered in England and Wales with company number 2473840, having its registered office at Wellington House, 125 Strand London WC2R OAP, England.

Airbus Group Limited manufactures and sells commercial aircraft, civil and military helicopters, commercial space launch vehicles, missiles, military aircraft, satellites, defense systems, and defense electronics; and rendering of related services worldwide. The company was formerly known as Eads UK Ltd. The company is based in London, United Kingdom. Airbus Group Limited operates as a subsidiary of Airbus Group.

Role in the Project

Airbus Group Ltd participates in WP2 and supports the parametric study to determine the effect of change in aircraft shape on the near field pressure development and subsequent boom signature. CFD methods including the DLR Tau RANS code are applied and results used to initiate the boom propagation methods utilised by other partners. Airbus Group Ltd also participates in WP4 to ensure that aircraft constraints in operation are accounted for in the WP2 activities.

Airbus Defence and Space GmbH

Organization Profile

Airbus Defence and Space GmbH a company organized and existing under the German law whose registered office and place of business is Willy-Messerschmitt-Str., 85521 Ottobrunn, Germany.

Airbus Defence and Space GmbH designs, develops, and manufactures defence and space products for governments and institutions in Germany and internationally. It offers military aircraft; space systems; satellite communications, border security, secure land communications, geo-intelligence, and cyber security products; and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance products. The company also provides electronic components and products that include radars and identification friend-or-foe systems, optronics, electronic warfare systems and sensors, space platform electronics, and space payload electronics; and situational awareness systems, on-board surveillance, and data communications products. In addition, it offers incident response services; cryptography, digital identity management, and high-security national solutions and consulting services; and training services. Its aircraft, satellites, and services help to monitor climate, crops, and to secure borders. Airbus Defence and Space GmbH was formerly known as EADS Deutschland GmbH and changed its name to Airbus Defence and Space GmbH in January 2014. The company is based in Ottobrunn, Germany. It has locations in the Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and the Americas. Airbus Defence and Space GmbH operates as a subsidiary of Airbus Group SE.

Role in the Project

Airbus Defence and Space GmbH is establishing in WP2 a software tool for a fast engineering assessment of low-boom aircraft shape and  contributes in WP3 to the State of the Art analysis of human response to sonic boom. AGI-G also leads the task “WP2.2: Experimental prediction capabilities”.

Dassault Aviation

Organization Profile

Dassault Aviation is one of the major players in the global aviation industry, with a presence in more than 90 countries across the 5 continents, whose varied activities cover several areas of high technology. Dassault Aviation's primary vocation is the design, development, production, sale and maintenance of business (FALCON) and military (RAFALE and UAV) aircraft.

In 2015, the FALCON turnover represented 60% of the overall turnover and 55 new FALCON aircraft were delivered. In total, Dassault Aviation has sold more than 2400 FALCON aircraft of all types over the last 50 years. 95 % of them have gone for export (61% of which to the USA). Today, more than 2000 FALCON are in service, corresponding to 900 customers. Cumulated FALCON aircraft flights represents 16 million hours. One FALCON takes-off or lands each minute around the world.

Today, the Dassault Aviation FALCON family in production comprises the FALCON 900LX, the FALCON 2000S, the FALCON 2000LXS, the FALCON 7X and the FALCON 8X. The FALCON family contributes enormously both to the reputation of European executive aircraft and to the European economy. It contributes to maintaining the industrial base of a European high technology sector. FALCON have been developed and produced in European cooperation with partners from Belgium (SABCA), Italy (ALENIA - PIAGGIO) and Greece (Hellenic Aircraft Industries). Many European partners have been involved in the development of the FALCON 7X and 8X business jet. The main ones are: Spain (Airbus-CASA), Netherlands (STORK) and Belgium (SONACA).

Dassault Aviation also leads space activities in the following fields: Aerospace vehicle studies (re-entry vehicles, suborbital vehicles and airborne mini-launchers); Telemetry systems for Ariane, Soyouz and Vega (French Guyana space center); Pyrotechnics: launcher and satellite equipments. Dassault, in particular, participates to the IXV (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle) programme (shape design, aero/aerothermodynamics and flight tests).

The Research and Development employs nearly one quarter of the company's workforce (about 8000 people in France). Fundamental and pre-competitive research is usually carried out in close co-operation with universities, research institutes and other industrial partners via a wide international network.

Dassault Aviation has started design studies of supersonic business jet concepts more than twenty years ago and it has coordinated the European project HISAC, a 4 year effort which had as main objectives to provide specifications for an environmentally friendly and economically viable small size supersonic transport aircraft and to make progress on elementary technologies and define road map for their future maturation and validation, up to a future proof of concept. Dassault Aviation participates to the ICAO discussions for the definition of a standard for the certification of sonic boom. This background and expertise is used to accomplish the work planned within RUMBLE.

Role in the Project

Dassult Aviation main tasks in the frame of RUMBLE project are:

  • WP1 : Dassault Aviation contributes to the setup of recommendations for the definition of a sonic boom standard and to links with ICAO/CAEP/WG1/SSTG
  • WP2 : Dassault Aviation contributes to the validation of prediction tools, the low boom demonstrator design and the associated synthesis and recommendations
  • WP3 : Dassault Aviation contributes to the identification of most critical scenarios for sonic boom exposure and to the implementation and validation of metrics
  • WP4 : Dassault Aviation contributes to the definition and recommendation of flight test procedures and instrumentation for flight test campaigns within RUMBLE and future certification tests.
  • WP5 : Dassault Aviation contributes to the definition of the flight tests programs, attends the flight tests campaigns and contributes to the post-processing of flight test data and validation of procedures
  • WP6 : Dassault Aviation contributes to the definition of requirements and recommendations for a low boom demonstrator including preliminary design activities

EASN Technology Innovation Services (EASN-TIS)

Organisation Profile

The European Aeronautics Science Network (EASN) is the Association of the European Academia active in Aeronautics research. Its main goal is to support the development of new knowledge, innovation and breakthrough technologies through fundamental research in Aeronautics. It represents the Academia in ACARE and other EU forums and committees. Through its currently registered members, EASN connects to more than 10000 academic staff throughout Europe. Furthermore, EASN has agreements with industrial and SME organizations for the dissemination of knowledge and research related information.

The EASN Association is represented in RUMBLE by the EASN-Technology Innovation Services (EASN-TIS). The latter is contractually linked to EASN and is exclusively authorized to act on its behalf in the frame of research projects, including project management and administration. Explicitly, the main services offered by EASN-TIS involve setting up, executing and monitoring the projects’ dissemination, communication and networking activities ensuring the wide and effective spread of their achievements to the relevant target audiences, while at the same time safeguarding the IP rights of the consortium in collaboration with the respective partners.

EASN-TIS actively participates in aeronautics related research projects, co-financed by the European Commission, aiming to support their dissemination, communication and exploitation activities. EASN-TIS also supports the related management activities by providing guidelines and best practices based on its extensive experience in research projects. In the frame of numerous collaborative projects, EASN-TIS has worked with most of the European outstanding research institutes, universities, aircraft manufacturers, airports, and innovative SMEs. A non-exhaustive list of its valued partners includes Airbus Group Innovations, Alenia Aermacchi, DLR, NLR, Thales, Dassault Aviation, etc.

Role in the project

In this project, EASN-TIS leads the dissemination and communication activities of the project (WP7). The main objective is to diffuse the project outcomes, by spreading the knowledge incubated within the project to a wide audience from all sectors such as the Industry, SMEs, the Academia and research establishments, while at the same time not failing to reach the wider public throughout Europe. Additionally, due to the novelty research realized within the project, the necessary measures are required to be applied towards protecting the legitimate interests of the involved parties with respect to the background introduced to the project and the foreground developed. To this end, EASN-TIS is responsible for monitoring and safe-guarding the IPRs of the parties involved.

At the same time, EASN-TIS supports the Project Coordinator and the entire consortium with management and administrative tasks (WP8), such as the consolidation of management reports, the monitoring of expenses against budget allocations, the consolidation of financial summary sheets, etc.; assisting individual partners in their administrative and financial issues, including the use of the European Commission’s Participant Portal and the correct submission of their financial reports; establishing and maintaining performance indicators with respect to the technical progress of the project and assess them with respect to the effort and budget consumptions; assisting in the logistics related to the preparation and implementation of project physical meetings; providing the technical means and support for on-line meetings, including consortium as well as work-package meetings.


Organization Profile

Zentrum für Angewandte Psychologie Umwelt-und Sozialforschung, ZEUS GmbH, provides high-quality research and scientific services concerning the impacts of social and physical environmental factors on human's cognition, behaviour, and health-related quality of life.

Founded in 1996 by environmental and social psychologists at Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, ZEUS aims at improving sustainability and the understanding of people's well-being and quality of life when interacting with the social and physical environment. The assessment of the impact of environmental noise on humans belongs to the key fields of work and ZEUS is one of Germany’s leading entities in the field of psychological and social research of noise effects on human-beings. The noise impact projects of ZEUS primarily focus on surveys, reviews and consulting concerning community perception and responses (e.g. annoyance and disturbances) to transportation noise, in particular aircraft noise, and the role of noise metrics and non-acoustical factors on explaining people's noise responses. One of the largest recent European study on the impact of transportation noise on residents living near an airport, the NORAH Study (Noise-Related Annoyance, Cognition, and Health), was coordinated by members of ZEUS.

With an expert team of three consultants and scientists plus freelancers and students working temporarily in empirical studies as interviewers and assistants for data processing ZEUS belongs to the category of small and medium- sized enterprises (SME). Most of the customers of ZEUS are international, federal, regional as well as local authorities, non-profit organisations, universities and research institutes.

Role in the Project

In WP1 ZEUS provides comprehensive expertise with regard to research on aircraft noise effects and methods of social science and statistics for the preparation of surveys of community responses to low boom noise in Europe and Russia.

ZEUS has carried out several socio-acoustical field studies on the impact of aircraft noise (and environmental noise in general). Members of ZEUS have recently contributed to the systematic evidence review of annoyance due to environmental noise for the new WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region expected to be published in 2017. Currently, experts of ZEUS advise research colleagues and their customers as peer reviewers and members of advisory boards in research projects on aircraft noise effects in several countries, e.g. in the FAA Twenty Airport Community Noise and Annoyance Survey in the United States, in the Swiss study SiRENE, 'Short and long-term effects of transportation noise exposure', and in the British Study on Noise Respite at Heathrow Airport. These experiences including expertise on study design, sampling, survey methods for noise impact assessments (e.g. interviews, postal or online surveys, use of mobile devices for the assessment of acute responses), and statistical analysis are brought in to fulfil the task of the development of the survey concept on the impact of low boom noise.

In WP3 ZEUS brings in its comprehensive methodological expertise and knowledge of noise impact research to advise the research work for the indoor and outdoor low boom perception studies with regard to aspects such as study design (e.g. experimental setting in indoor and outdoor perception studies), recruitment of participants, operationalization of impact variables and statistical analysis on exposure-response relationships.

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR)

Organization Profile

DLR is Germany‘s national research center for aeronautics and space exploration. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space exploration, energy and transport is integrated into national and international co-operations. DLR’s research portfolio ranges from fundamental research to the development of products for tomorrow. In this way, DLR contributes the scientific and technical expertise that it has acquired to the enhancement of Germany as a location for industry and technology.

The Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA) conducts research into the physics and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere from the Polar Regions to the tropics. The institute’s research focuses on weather and climate processes that are of strategic importance to the further development of air transport: wake turbulence, weather information for efficient and safe air travel and the climate effects of emissions and condensation trails. Research on transport aims to evaluate the effects of shipping, rail and road transport on the consistency of the atmosphere (air quality), on climate and noise exposure.

The Institute of Aerospace Medicine is the establishment within DLR which provides life sciences research and services. It has a 20-year experience in investigating the impact of aircraft, rail and road traffic noise on residents. In particular, the institute conducted several large scale studies investigating the influence of nocturnal traffic noise (air, rail, and road) on sleep (exposure response curves of awakening probabilities) using polysomnography (“gold standard” in sleep research as a function of a single flyover-event), performance, stress, mood and annoyance under artificial (laboratory) and real (field) conditions. Field studies on air traffic noise effects included Cologne/Airport (high night-time traffic) and Frankfurt (before and after the implementation of a night time ban between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m.).

Role in the Project

In WP2, DLR-AS performs a State of the Art Analysis on sonic boom experimental and CFD near field. DLR-PA performs validation of Far field modeling and account for planetary boundary layer turbulence, ground topography and buildings effect and examines the sensibility to atmospheric variations as well as provides an assessment of atmospheric correction between test and reference day conditions.

In WP3, the sleep of 50 subjects each experiencing during 3 nights a simulated boom is examined by DLR-ME. The boom exposure-response curve is compared to those curves of other transportation modes and is used to recommend night protection concepts.

In WP4, DLR-PA is leader. The Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere delivers the 3D flow fields and acts as a close link to the sound simulation. Therefore the calculation (reproduction) of realistic flow fields over different kind of terrain is done. Results from these simulations contain recommendations for measurements concerning all necessary quantities to specify the flight procedures for the flight test campaign under certain atmospheric conditions.

Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA)

Organization Profile

ONERA is the French national aerospace research center. It is a public research establishment, with eight major facilities in France and about 2,000 employees, including 1,500 scientists, engineers and technicians.

ONERA was originally created by the French government in 1946, and assigned six key missions:

  • Direct and conduct aeronautical research
  • Support the commercialization of this research by national and European industry
  • Construct and operate the associated experimental facilities
  • Supply industry with high-level technical analyses and other services.
  • Perform technical analyses for the government
  • Train researchers and engineers

ONERA conducts Application-Oriented Research. Whether the research has short, medium or long-term goals, it is designed to support the competitiveness and creativity of the aerospace and defense industries.

ONERA covers all the disciplines and techniques needed to drive progress in aerospace: aerodynamics, flight dynamics, propulsion, structural strength, materials, optics and laser, acoustics, radar and electromagnetism, electronics, systems, robotics, information processing. The research carried out at ONERA results in computation codes, methods, tools, technologies, materials and other products and services which are used to design and manufacture everything to do with aerospace:

  • Civil aircraft
  • Military aircraft
  • Helicopters and tiltrotors
  • Propulsion systems
  • Orbital systems
  • Space transport
  • Missile systems
  • Defense systems
  • Networked systems and security systems

ONERA is partially funded by the French government to primarily finance long-term research, which lays the groundwork for future developments. Research contracts finance medium and short-term work, closer to the application. The strategic challenge for ONERA is to organize this broad knowledge stream, ranging from the acquisition of knowledge to transferring it to industry.

The research carried out or coordinated by ONERA is designed to meet some of the main challenges facing society today:

  • Develop industrial competitiveness
  • Protect the environment
  • Enhance safety and security

ONERA is working on some of today’s most important issues, including the reduction of noise and emissions, aircraft safety and air traffic management. At the same time, we are continuing our research into increasing the performance and competitiveness of airplanes, helicopters and launch vehicles.

ONERA also addresses today’s fast-changing defense needs, such as surveillance and tracking systems, information processing, decision aids and aircraft autonomy. Our researchers cover every link in the defense system chain: see – understand – decide – act.

Role in the Project

The main ONERA activities in the RUMBLE project are as follows:

  • Contribute to identify the state of the art of the different key topics related to sonic boom
  • Participate to the psychoacoustic studies and elaboration/validation of sonic boom annoyance metrics
  • Coordinate the WP2, contribute to the low-boom shape design, perform a wind tunnel test to acquire reference near-field pressures data, validate numerical sonic boom prediction methods
  • Contribute to the acoustic measurements and analysis of the flight tests performed in WP5

Ecole Centrale de Lyon

Organization Profile

The Ecole Centrale de Lyon became a public engineering school in 1947. It is associated with the Ecole Centrale de Paris, Nantes and Lille within the intergroup that these four schools formed a few years ago. The Ecole Centrale de Lyon belongs to institutions delivering the Engineer Diploma, of the French Ministry of Tertiary Education and Research. The objective of this school is to produce generalist engineers during training lasting 3 years within a group of 340 students. The permanent staff who number around 300 are also involved in research spread amongst 6

laboratories. Around 170 PhD students work in these laboratories.

The Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d'Acoustique (LMFA) is a JRU (Joint Research Unit – UMR 5509), its legal representatives are the Ecole Centrale de Lyon (ECL) and its linked third parties the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (INSA) and the Université Claude Bernard – Lyon I (UCBL). All the scientific work is carried out in the LMFA, at the ECL, but the costs of the project are borne by the members of the JRU and Centrale Innovation (C-Innov, the subsidiary of ECL, created in 1993 in order to manage the administrative and financial tasks of ECL), as C-Innov provides financial management on behalf of the JRU. The LMFA laboratory is divided into 4 research groups: Acoustics, Complex Flows, Turbomachinery, Turbulence and Stability. The LMFA initiated the creation in 2011 of “Centre Lyonnais d’Acoustique” CeLyA as a “Laboratoire d’Excellence” by the French Ministry of Research (

The Acoustics Group of the LMFA is composed of 20 permanent staff and 25 PhD students and post-docs. Its specialty is the interaction between acoustics and fluid mechanics. It has expertise both in experimental, numerical and theoretical study of sound generation by aeroacoustics sources and sound propagation. The group has participated to a number of French and European research projects, mostly concerning transportation noise.

Role in the Project

Ecole Centrale de Lyon contributes to WP1 and WP2.

  • WP1 : Philippe Blanc-Benon contributes to WP1 new international regulation on supersonic overland flight in connection with ICAO and to Sonic Boom Standards strategy and technical coordination.
  • WP2 : Ecole Centrale de Lyon contributes to identify, model and quantify, how ground effects and the planetary boundary layer turbulence influence the propagation of a sonic boom produced by a quiet supersonic aircraft. For this objective, Ecole Centrale de Lyon uses its acoustic propagation codes and turbulence models with realistic planetary boundary layer turbulence parameters provided by DLR. Results should indicate which phenomena must be considered to predict accurately the pressure signature and the perceived loudness at the ground. ECL performs numerical simulations to evaluate the influence of ground impedance, roughness and small topography scales on pressure signatures and loudness. An urban environment area is first considered as a rough surface (urban city layer) to represent the mean effects of multiple diffractions by buildings.

Stiftelssen Norges Geotekniske Institutt

Organization Profile

Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) is a leading international centre for research and consulting within the geosciences. NGI develops optimum solutions for society, and offers expertise on the behaviour of soil, rock and snow and their interaction with the natural and built environment. NGI works within the following sectors: Offshore energy - Building, Construction and Transportation - Natural Hazards -Environmental Engineering. NGI is a private foundation with office and laboratory in Oslo, branch office in Trondheim and daughter companies in Houston, Texas, USA, and Perth, Australia. NGI is a research center for geo-related research, and results are put into practice to benefit industry, the public sector and society, both in Norway and abroad. NGI's research is supported by industry, authorities, The Research Council of Norway and EU research programs. Through publication of research results, extensive lecturing activity, participation in academic committees and international panels of expertise, NGI contributes actively to new development. Each year, a large number of experts and researchers from abroad visit at NGI for extended research periods.

NGI's laboratory with workshops and model testing halls covers a full 2000 m2. The laboratory is a cornerstone of NGI's activities, and forms the starting point for many of NGI's fields of expertise. NGI also has its own instrumentation group with expertise in measurement technique, mechanical fabrication and equipment development, computer science and physics. Among areas of work are large scale low-frequency noise and vibration measurements, special investigations of ground conditions in soil and rock, and monitoring of buildings and infrastructure for systematic safety surveillance.

Role in the Project

NGI's vibration and earthquake group has expertise in dynamics, geo-materials, acoustics, vibration in geomaterials and structures, applied mathematics, numerical modelling, statistics, instrumentation, monitoring techniques and signal processing. To this end, our research and development related to acoustics and vibrations is highly affiliated to understanding the mechanisms for generating low-frequency sound induced vibrations from aircrafts and blasts and how to mitigate them. As such, NGI's scientific profile is tailor-made towards providing the simulation tools for estimating low frequency sound transfer and induced vibration from sonic boom and low boom in WP2 and WP3, and for designing and performing low frequency sound vibration measurements from sonic boom indoor and outdoor in WP5.

Sorbonne Université

Organization Profile

Sorbonne Université, was derived after the fusion of Universités Paris-Sorbonne (Paris-IV) and Pierre-et-Marie-Curie (Paris-VI). It is a University of multidisciplinary research of high level (type EPSCP Etablissement Public à caractère Scientifique, Culturel et Professionnel). Situated at the heart of Paris, it is committed to the success of its students and strives to meet the challenges of the 21st century. With more than 30,000 students, 120 laboratories and 3,500 doctoral students in science and medicine, Sorbonne Université is one of the leading French universities. According to the 2013 Shangaï ranking, Sorbonne Université is the 1st French, 6th European and 37th university worldwide. With a large amount of funding allocated to research and 6,600 publications per year (approximately 10% of the French production), Sorbonne Université is a major player in international knowledge and innovation economy, as evidenced by its many international awards and medals.

Sorbonne Université has a wide experience of EU contracts and its European affairs office, that is in charge of the EU projects at Sorbonne Université, has managed so far 100 EU FP6 and 115 FP7 projects and more than 55 H2020 projects, as coordinator or partner. Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie has also adopted the European Charter for Researchers and the code of conduct for the recruitment of Researchers.

All Sorbonne Université members of the project belong to Jean Le Rond d'Alembert Research Institute, a research unit partnered with the CNRS (French national Centre for Scientific Research), hosting nearly 90 permanent staff members. The Jean Le Rond d'Alembert Research Institute conducts cross disciplinary research in mechanics and acoustics. Two research teams, both involved in Rumble project have an internationally renowned expertise in acoustics : one about physical acoustics (numerical simulation of sound propagation, modelling of weak shock waves, innovative microphone arrays, source imaging…), one about musical acoustics and sound perception (musical instruments, electroacoustics, sound quality, sound perception, psychoacoustics…)

Role in the Project

Given its expertise, Université Sorbonne mainly participates in the following tasks:

  • WP1: Participation to synthesis as WP3 leader.
  • Task 2.1.2: Numerical modelling of the ground influence (planetary boundary layer turbulence, ground topography, scattering by buildings) on low sonic booms.
  • WP3: Human response to Sonic Boom.
  • Task 3.1: Preliminary requirements.
  • Task 3.4: Design of outdoor low boom simulator, and outdoor subjective perceptive tests.
  • Task 3.5: Effect of low boom on sleep: provide test site, recruit subjects and students performing tests to provide data to DLR for analysis.
  • WP7: Participate in the public dissemination of Rumble results.

Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg

Organization Profile

The University of Oldenburg was founded in 1973 and has more than 13,000 students, and over 2000 employees of whom 200 are professors. The university is known for its research and education in renewable energy and hearing sciences. Oldenburg University has won a prestigious national grant within the excellence initiative in Germany named “Hearing4all” focusing on diagnostics, treatment, and technology for hearing impairment. It supports 29 research groups residing at Oldenburg University, Hannover Medical School, and the Leibniz University in Hannover. Prof. van de Par is one of the Principal Investigators within this program and head of the Acoustics Group.

The Acoustics Group has a long tradition in research in sound quality including vibration perception for Aircraft and Automobiles and has participated in various projects funded by the European Commission e.g. IDEA PACI (FP4), HEACE (FP5, co-ordinated by Oldenburg University), FACE (FP5), ICE (FP6), FRIENDCOPTER (FP6). The Acoustics Group in Oldenburg has ongoing research projects with Airbus (on cabin noise perception), Daimler (on context effects in the acoustic evaluation of vehicle noise), and with a consortium of manufacturers of domestic and industrial ventilators (perceptual space of ventilators and metric development). The Acoustic Group investigates both the perception and sound quality of noise and vibration in various contexts by means of subjective evaluation as well as by developing predictive models of auditory perception and is contributing to the standardization of such psychoacoustic models within the DIN (German Institute for Standardization). Other research topics in the acoustics group are audio reproduction technology and basic psychoacoustics.

Role in the Project

The University of Oldenburg (UOLD) contributes to WP3 (Human Response to Sonic Boom). The main activity is in WP3.3 where UOLD is the task leader. In WP3.3, UOLD develops and evaluates the indoor Sonic Boom Simulator and uses it for preparing and performing a study on the indoor subjective perception of sonic boom. The indoor simulator is realized in a small enclosed pressure chamber and besides acoustic stimuli presents whole body vibrations. The subjective study measures the annoyance and startle effect due to low sonic booms for various boom signatures, acoustic and vibrational levels, and in dependence of the presence of rattle noise. Results are compared to predictions of various metrics. The work on the indoor simulator and the subjective studies conducted is developed and evaluated in close connection with the out-door simulator effort (WP3.4 headed by UPMC). UOLD contributes also to the design of the subjective studies for outdoor sonic boom. In addition, UOLD provides input to WP 3.1 collecting the State-of-the-Art on the human response to sonic boom.

Anotec Engineering SL

Organization Profile

ANOTEC stands for Aircraft NOise TEChnology. It was created in 2001 with the objective to provide high quality consulting services to aerospace manufacturers, aircraft operators, airports, civil aviation authorities and other stakeholders in the field of Aircraft Noise. Recently its scope has been extended with aircraft emissions and noise emissions interdependencies.

ANOTEC is a Spanish, private and independent company, and thus can offer impartial and optimised solutions, both from a technical as well as an economical point of view. Among its staff members decades of experience in the field of aircraft noise are accumulated.

Main activities are:

• Flight tests for aircraft noise certification and research

• Airport noise impact studies

• Aircraft/airport noise consultancy

During its existence ANOTEC has developed, partially within European projects, a suite of tools to perform these activities in an efficient manner and with high quality. These solutions cover both measurements and modelling.

ANOTEC is actively taking part in worldwide working groups related to aircraft noise (ICAO/CAEP WG1, AIRMOD, ANNA group)

Role in the Project

In RUMBLE, ANOTEC provides the NENA model, developed in the NINHA Project for the assessment of noise impact of aircraft in the en-route phase of flight. In WP1, ANOTEC adapts this model to the requirements of RUMBLE, especially the implementation of a source noise model and noise annoyance metrics representative for supersonic aircraft considered in RUMBLE. This model is implemented in a tool chain that supports the preparation of low boom community survey.

Federal State Unitary Enterprise the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after prof. N.E. Zhukovsky (TsAGi)

Organization Profile

The Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after N.E. Zhukovsky (TsAGI) was founded on December 1, 1918. TsAGI is a leader in aviation theory and experimentation. It has extensive experience in designing aircraft and thorough traditions in comprehensive scientific research. Its engineering staff has a continuous influx of talented people prepared in unique educational programs at leading scientific Russian universities, such as: the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Moscow Aviation Institute. Over the last several years, TsAGI established contacts with a majority of research and development centers and aircraft manufacturers in Europe, the United States and Asia. TsAGI considers these relationships to be only the beginning of new international cooperation in the future of flight. TsAGI is the leading research institute of Russian Aviation Industry. One of the main activities of TsAGI is the supersonic programs, i.e. development of a scientific and technical experience for advanced Low Boom and Low Noise supersonic civil aircrafts such as business and passenger plans. TsAGI is a pioneer in the theory of Sonic Boom and Community Noise. Experience of the institute also with success was used in the all-European HISAC program.

Role in the Project

The role of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after N.E. Zhukovsky (TsAGI) in the frame of the RUMBLE project may be listed in the following actions :

  • Preliminary aerodynamic and structural design & low boom design for Advanced Super Sonic Civil Jet Family.
  • Preliminary LBFD based to Su-30 configuration sonic boom assessments.
  • Recommendations to Standards Requirements with Metrics and Thresholds (including outdoor, indoor impact and civil subsonic aircraft and building response) for advanced SSCJ configurations, Sonic Boom acceptability levels.
  • Cruise flight primary sonic boom assessments, acceleration with climb sonic boom with focused boom, descent with deceleration sonic boom and secondary boom assessments in real atmosphere conditions for SSCJ configurations.
  • Wind tunnel near field and open track signatures measurements at Mach numbers 1.7-2.0.

Federal State Unitary Enterprise Gromov Flight Research Institute

Organization Profile

The Flight Research Institute named after M.M. Gromov is the central flight test and research establishment in Russia. FRI is an independent non-profit organization. Main directions of FRI’s activity are:

  • Fundamental, open-end and applied flight research in aviation and space engineering.
  • Performance of various flight research and tests of different types of flying vehicles, including experimental and tentative ones.
  • Flight research and tests in the flying test beds, in-flight simulators and flying models on the aerodynamics, flight dynamics, flight control systems, stress/fatigue, thermodynamics, human factor, flight safety, etc. FRI provides scientific, methodological and metrological support at all stages of new flying vehicles and flight test techniques creation. FRI employs a staff of about 3000 in Zhukovsky, Moscow region. Over 90% of the staff are graduates from universities and technical colleges.

FRI has an extensive research experience in flying vehicles noise measurements including aircraft noise certification and in research of aircraft sonic boom. Flight research and tests are carried out in experimental and tentative flying vehicles, designed by different aviation design bureaus and in flying test beds developed in FRI on the bases of serially produced aircraft and helicopters.

Role in the Project

The role of the Gromov Flight Research Institute in the frame of the RUMBLE project may be listed in the following actions:

  • The sonic boom measurement statistics from earlier Tu-144 and other supersonic A/C flight tests results and Means of Compliance review.
  • Russian building structures characteristics and methodologies to evaluate indoor sonic boom.
  • Preliminary flight test procedures, measuring equipment, metrics & methodology for Sonic Boom measurement, based on previous experience.
  • Recommendations for sonic boom flight test methodology.
  • Recommendations for sonic boom flight test procedures, protocols.
  • Methods for justification, definition of means of compliance, sonic boom flight test procedures, protocols.
  • Recommendation of relevant flight procedures and instrumentation for the substantiation of sonic boom levels.
  • Flight test program writing including management of Aircraft, Site capability, Test instrumentation (ground, inboard, weather, telemetry), in accordance with EU team.
  • Su-30 aircraft sonic boom ground measurements in flight tests. Su-30 aircraft outdoor & indoor sonic boom measurements in different flight conditions.
  • Post processing of all data collected.

The State Scientific Research Institute of Civil Aviation (GosNII GA)

Organization Profile

GosNII GA was founded in October 1930, since that the Institute has provided the scientific support of works on introduction into operation more than 100 types of aircraft. Presently, GosNII GA is a large scientific and research organization. It includes 12 scientific centers, covering a wide area of interest and research in the field of air transport, including certification and special testing and introduction of new aircraft and engine units; maintaining flight worthiness of aircraft and engine units in operation; ensuring flight safety and security; development of aviation market, formation of requirements for new airman and development of civil aviation programs; improving flight and technical operation process; creation and implementation of new information technologies in civil aviation; solving problems of energy saving; study of environmental safety issues; ensuring certification of aviation training centers and other civil aviation objects etc. GosNII GA also includes Aviation Certification Center, which is a separate division of the Institute and is a head division for certification of civil aircraft: its scope of accreditation includes the aircraft noise certification. In the supersonic aviation field the Institute took part in the mid-1970s in the development of the regulatory framework for noise certification of the Tu-144, in the 1990-s Institute conducted technical-and-economic assessment of a number of supersonic business jets projects, in 2000s performance requirements of supersonic aircrafts were developed by the GosNII GA. Over the last years an assessment of the influence of the acceptable level of sound impact on the potential supersonic business aircraft market was evaluated.

Role in the Project

The role of the State Scientific Institute of Civil Aviation GosNII GA in the frame of the RUMBLE project may be listed in the following actions:

  • Preliminary market assessment for Advanced Super Sonic Civil Jet family.
  • Examination of the current regulation framework in the field of civil operation of Advanced Super Sonic Civil Jet family.
  • Development of forward-looking regulations of sonic boom.

State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Moscow Aviation Institute Technical University (MAI)

Organization Profile

Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) was founded in 1930 to train qualified personnel for the aerospace industry. Since its founding more than 160,000 professionals in aviation, space and relevant science and industry have graduated MAI among them more than 250 general and chief designers, heads of main industry organizations, more than 150 Honored test pilots, Heroes of the USSR and Russia, more than 300 Honored state figures and head of economy structures, ambassadors, business representatives, more than 50 Academicians and associate members of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 rectors of higher educational institutions, 22 astronauts, 60 Olympic champions, world champions in various sports.

MAI has prepared more than 17,000 foreign experts for aviation and space industry. Among the foreign companies employing MAI specialists are over 100 major international companies, the most notable ones are: Airbus, NASA, Boeing Company, General Electric Company, DuPont Company, IBM Corporation, 3M, Honeywell, Smiths Aerospace Actuation Systems, HEICO Corporation and others.

MAI subdivisions are increasing the volumes of R&D conducted. Amount of R&D in 2016 – more than 23 million dollars per year. Also in 2016 MAI got 72 patents and about 300 publications in Scopus and WoS journals.

MAI is the only university in the world that holds a developer certificate for light aircraft and a license to develop aircraft. The university provides educational and scientific support for serial aircraft production.

MAI has designed and developed over 20 different types of aircraft.

Role in the Project

Regarding its role in the frame of the RUMBLE project, the Moscow Aviation Institute provides:

  • Aerodynamic design, aerodynamics & main flight parameters, near field in cruise flight conditions assessments.
  • Cruise flight near field with different numerical methods application.
  • Sonic boom numerical assessments base to different near field determination methods results.
  • Su-30 sonic boom numerical assessments results with different propagation codes application & the cruise flight numerical near field.
  • Provides and assigns the preliminary LBFD Requirements.

Federalnoe Gosudarstvennoe Unitarnoe Predpriyatie Centralnii Institutaviacionogo Motorostroeniya Imeni Pi Baranova (CIAM)

Organization Profile

The Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) established in 1930 is unique in Russian a scientific-research organization that is carrying out the complex researches and developments in the field of air breathing engine (ABE) technologies and its scientific backgrounds – from fundamentals of physical processes to engineering, testing and certification. Directions of the CIAM activities includes: aviation gas turbine engines&industrial gas turbine units, fans&compressors, turbine, combustors, inlets&nozzles, fuels&oils, control systems&subsystems, theoretical& numerical aerodynamic&heat transfer, strength&reliability and testing of ABE and their components with simulation of flight conditions.

A part of the CIAM activity related to creation of engines, inlets and nozzles for powerplant of high-speed aircraft, including civilian. Recent efforts in this area focused on conceptual and preliminary design of powerplant of advanced supersonic commercial aircrafts (SSCJ) of different dimensions, including supersonic business aircraft (SSBJ).

Currently the CIAM’s competence on the subject of the proposal include:

  • Conceptual & Preliminary design and simulation of some advanced turbofan engines that best meet future requirements for before mentioned powerplants both for cruising flight, and for take-off and landing.
  • The results of calculation and experimental investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of the original high performance inlet with reduced levels of extra drag and wave losses, and the results of an experimental study of acoustic performance of low noise nozzle with acoustic shielding by means elements of airframe.
  • Means to control the engine operation mode and the velocity profile in the exhaust jet, which could reduce the level of sonic boom at cruise flight and minimize the exhaust jet noise at takeoff and landing.
  • The turbofan’s mathematical models and modern numerical methods of calculation of SSCJ/SSBJ aerodynamic and exhaust jet acoustic performance.

These competences confirmed by significant number of scientific publications and technical reports and used with success in Russian’s scientific & technology Programs and in the all-European HISAC Program.

Role in the Project

The Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) is assigned with the following tasks:

  • To provide for all RUMBLE participants mass&sizes, altitude – airspeed&throttle performances, thermodynamic mode parameters of advanced engines for variants of SSBCJ/SSBJ considered.
  • Numerical assessment of acoustic performances of exhaust jet at take-off for variants of SSBCJ/SSBJ considered
  • Numerical assessment of impact of engine’s mode on Sonic Boom in cruise conditions for variants of SSBCJ/SSBJ considered

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 769896.

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